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"For Instruction shall come forth from Zion, The word of the L-rd from Jerusalem." -- Isaiah 2:3


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DEUTERONOMY — 1:16 hear

R. Chanina said: This is an exhortation to the beth-din not to hear the claim of one litigant before the arrival of the other, and an exhortation to one litigant not to present his claim to the judge before the arrival of the other. Whence is this derived? From its [shma] "shamea" [being, likewise, pronounceable as "shamea" ["to make heard," as well as "shamoa" ("to hear")] between your brothers (Sanhedrin 7b)

DEUTERONOMY — 1:17 face

[Do not be partial] -- This applies to one who appoints judges. If he says: This man is handsome, so I will appoint him as a judge; this man is strong; this man is multilingual, so I will appoint him as a judge -- this will result in a guilty one's being acquitted, an innocent one's being incriminating; not because he is culpable, but because he [the judge] is ignorant [of the law]. Scripture [in such an instance] regards him [who made the appointment] as having been partial in judgment (Sifrei)

DEUTERONOMY — 1:17 fear

It was taught: R. Yehoshua b. Karchah says: Whence is it derived that if a disciple is sitting before his master and sees a possible claim favorable to the poor litigant and detrimental to the wealthy one -- whence is it derived that he may not remain silent? From: "Do not fear any man." R. Channan says: "Do not to withhold your words by reason of [fear of] any man" [the literal meaning of "taguru" ("fear") being "withhold"] (Sanhedrin 6b, 7a)

DEUTERONOMY — 1:17 small

What is the intent of: "Small is great"? Resh Lakish said: To teach that a litigation of one perutah shall be as important to you as a litigation of one hundred. What is the implication for practice? If, that [even a small litigation] requires analysis and decision, this is obvious. [The implication must be, then,] that if it [the smaller litigation] is presented first, it receives precedence [i.e., it is judged first] (Sanhedrin 8a)

DEUTERONOMY — 2:6 food

["tishberu" also understandable as "you shall break")] -- From here, they said: If you can break your enemy with food, feed him; if not, heap money upon him. And this was the practice followed by R. Yonathan. When a potentate [who would act as a judge] would enter the city, he would send him an expensive gift, saying: if the plea of an orphan or a widow comes before him, his wrath will be appeased, and he will be reconcilable (Yerushalmi Shabbath 1:4)

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