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"For Instruction shall come forth from Zion, The word of the L-rd from Jerusalem." -- Isaiah 2:3


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GENESIS — 1:28 fruitful

It is a positive commandment to marry a wife in order to be fruitful and multiply (have children) as Scripture states, And G-d said to them: Be fruitful and multiply [this verse]. One's intention should be the continuation of the human species. When a man is eighteen, he becomes subject to the duty of begetting children; and if he passes the age of twenty without having married, he thus transgresses and disobeys this positive commandment. If he is occupied in Torah study and he fears that the problem of earning a livelihood will interfere, he is permitted to delay – but in any event not beyond the age of twenty-five.

GENESIS — 12:5 acquired

A person needs to set himself solely to understand and grow wise through the fields of wisdom and comprehension that convey the glory of his Maker, to the extent of the ability that a person has to understand and realize.  This is among the commandments that a person has a duty to observe at every occasion and every moment.  Included in this mizvah [is the obligation] to bring human beings closer to His service and worship (blessed is He), and to make Him beloved by His human beings, as Abraham our father did (peace abide with him) – as scripture states, and the souls that they had formed in Haran [this verse].  For this reason the Holy One, blessed is He, called him His friend, as it says, Abraham My friend. Isaiah 41:8. CCCBM 15

EXODUS — 20:2 G-d

It is a positive commandment to believe that there is a G-d in existence as Scripture states [this verse]; and He--be He blessed and exalted--brought all existing entities into being, and all the world, by His power and blessed wish. It is He who watches over everything. This is the foundation of our faith, and whoever does not believe this denies the very main principle [the one and only G-d], and he has no share or right among the Jewish people. We are duty-bound to be ready to give our life and our might and main for this belief. The main thing, though, is to fix firmly in one's heart and soul that this is the truth, and nothing other than this is possible.

EXODUS — 20:3 other

One is not to utter any word who sense is heresy (Heaven forbid), or some acknowledgment of idolatry (Heaven forbid). For if anyone acknowledges idol-worship, it is as though he denies heretically the entire Torah, since he denies the very fundamental principle. And we are duty-bound to be ready to give up our lives and our might over this; for in regard to all things that touch on the main principle of our faith, there is an obligation to accept death [if necessary] and not transgress.

EXODUS — 20:7 vain

It is a negative commandment not to swear in vain as Scripture says, You shall not take the name of Hashem your G-d in vain [this verse]. A vain oath is divided into four categories: (1) If one swears to a change in something known; for example, if he swears about a man that he is a woman, or about a stone that it is gold. (2) If he swears to no purpose; for example, he takes an oath about a stone that it is a stone. (3) If he takes an oath to fail to observe a mitzvah. (4) If he swears to do something which is impossible to fulfill; for example, that he will not sleep for three days in a row, or that he will taste no food for seven days in a row. Over every one of these oaths, if he swore it willfully, he should receive whiplashes; and if it was unwitting, he is free of penalty. If someone says a benediction in vain [needlessly] or he utters the name of Heaven [G-d] to no purpose, he violates the injunction, You shall not take the name, etc.

EXODUS — 20:12 honor

It is a positive commandment to respect one's father and mother [this verse]. Now, what is the honor [meant here]? – One is to provide food and drink and clothing, out of the father's money. But if the father has no money and the son does, the son is compelled to sustain his father according to his means. And he is to attend upon them [his parents] in the way that a bondservant attends upon his master. He is to honor him [his father] even after his death. … Honoring one's father takes precedence over honoring his mother, since both he and his mother are obligated to honor his father.

EXODUS — 20:13 murder

It is a negative commandment to kill no living human being as Scripture says, You shall not murder [this verse]. If someone kills a human being deliberately, his execution should be by the sword [decapitation]. If he did not kill him with his own hand but only caused his death, he is not subject to execution by court verdict, but is punishable by death at Heaven's hands. If someone destroys even one living person in Jewry, it is as though he made a whole world perish. If someone closes a person's eyes at the departure of his life [instead of afterward] he thus sheds blood [by shortening the other's life, however briefly].

EXODUS — 20:13 witness

It is a negative commandment to give no false testimony as Scripture says, You shall not bear false witness against your fellow [this verse]. If someone gives as testimony what he heard from others, even definitely trustworthy people, he likewise violates this prohibition. If a person hires false witnesses, or if one suppresses his testimony [and does not go to give it] he is free, not punishable, by the laws of man, but punishable by the laws of Heaven.

EXODUS — 20:14 covet

It is a negative commandment not to covet (desire) anything belonging to one's fellow-man as Scripture says, You shall not covet, etc. [this verse]. Now, coveting denotes that a person invest effort to put his thought into action; he sends many friends to the fellow, and importunes him, until he takes it [the object he desires] from him. Even if he has given him a great price for it, he thus violates it [the commandment]. This often occurs when a son-in-law pressures his father-in-law before the wedding that he should give him this-and-that object, which they did not stipulate when the t'na'im (conditions of the marriage) were written. Even if his father-in-law fulfills his demand, the son-in-law nevertheless violates his probation not to covet it, etc. (and see Rabad on Rambam, Yad, hilchot g'zelah, i).

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